Mozart and the Masons of Prague.
By Jacob Sadilek MSc
Mozart Freemason in Vienna.
A lot has been written about Mozart’s stay in Prague and also on Mozart’s Masonic activities. It is widely known, that Mozart was initiated on 14 December 1784 in the Viennese lodge Zur Wohltatigkeit, passed into the second degree on 7 January 1785 in the lodge Zur wahren Eintracht. This ceremony was led by Ignaz von Born. There is, unfortunately, no document proving his raising into the third degree, most likely this happened mid-January 1785 in his own lodge Zur Wohltatigkeit. According to Gunter Kodek it was on 25th January. Mozart was regularly participating in lodge activities in Vienna. Particularly his musical compositions for a variety of Masonic occasions is his lasting contribution to Freemasonry. After 1785 he was member of the Viennese lodge Zur (neu) gekronten Hoffnung which amalgamated with his mother lodge. Mozart remained a master mason till his death in 1791.
Somehow, however, apart from some speculative statements, there has not been a serious study, underpinned by hard facts and evidence, of Mozart’s Masonic contacts in Prague. I will try to summarize those known facts and fictions on this subject, which might be a starting point for further research.
Mozart visited Prague five times.
First visit: 11 January – 8 February 1787 (29 days)
Second visit: 4 October – 15 November 1787 (43 days)
Third visit: 10 April 1789 (1 day)
Fourth visit: 31 May – 2/3 June 1789 (Max 3 days)
Fifth visit: 28 August – 15? September 1791 (ca 19 days)
Mozart spend a third of his life traveling, exactly 3 720 days. Most of this was spend in Germany and Italy. His stay in Paris took in total 6 months, his London stay was longer than a year and his stay in Holland was ca 6 months.
Mozart stayed in Prague in total only ca 95 days, about little more than three months. That is compared to all his travel time, quite short, less than 3%.
Prague in Mozart’s time.
What was the position of Prague at Mozart’s time? It had about 78.000 inhabitants. Paris was the largest city on the continent with over 600.000 inhabitants, Vienna had 235.000 and Rome and Berlin had ca 150.000 citizens each.
So in Central Europe it was after Vienna and Berlin the largest city. Dresden had 53.000, Leipzig 29.000 and Munich 48.000 inhabitants. However, Prague was a capital of a Kingdom, but without a King and a royal court, as the Habsburg Emperor was at the same time King of Bohemia but was residing in Vienna. Dresden and Munich had the benefit of being residencies of their ruling dynasties.
Prague had several administrative functions for Bohemia, but nearly all political and cultural life of importance was concentrated in Vienna. Foreign visitors appreciated the cities’ attractive location and the many palaces and churches were considered worth sightseeing. The aristocracy was quite numerous, but did not reside in the city all the time. Part of the season they spend in Vienna and part at their country seats. Giacomo Casanova, who lived at this time in the Bohemian town Dux judged the Bohemian aristocracy as backwards and selfish. But on the other hand we see a very active musical life, mostly sponsored by noble families, who kept frequently they own orchestras and theaters. One can conclude, that Prague was a larger city in Central Europe and in spite of lacking the presence and patronage of the ruling Imperial court, it developed a rich cultural and particularly musical life. The main sponsors were established noble families and some wealthy citizens.
Royal coronation in 1791.
Prague witnessed a quite exceptional period in September 1791, when the Imperial family stayed for nearly one month for their coronation as King and Queen of Bohemia and all celebrations connected to this. It was a royal capital again, for a brief moment and this was the back-drop for Mozart’s last visit.
The Mozart cult in Prague.
There is a vast literature over Mozart’s Prague visits, picturing a city, where all inhabitants were infatuated by Mozart’s presence and full of endless admiration of his music. This adoration came from leading aristocratic families, the community of
musicians, general public and also from the Prague Freemasons. Ultimately a picture emerges, that Prague and Mozart had a love relationship much stronger than with any other city. A lasting Mozart cult was established.
So why is the image of a happy relationship between Mozart and Prague so strong and enduring? Clearly, the fame is based on the world-wide success of his opera Don Giovanni composed for the Nostitz National Theater and which had its premiere in Prague on 29 October 1787.
To this success are related his first two visits. The third and fourth visits were merely passing thru on his journey from Vienna to Dresden and Berlin and back. The fifth and last visit was connected to another world opera premiere, of La clemenza di Tito, composed for the Prague coronation of Leopold the Second. The subject – matter – an Emperor forgiving his potential assassin and showing mildness and goodness was considered suitable not only for the character of Leopold, but for the Age of Enlightenment in general. According to Paul Nettl this theme of Tito, the all forgiving, showing the principles of Masonic tolerance, was not by accident chosen by the committee of the Bohemian Estates. The committee members were counts Thun, Canal, Pachta, Lažanský, Clary, Hartig, Sporck, Kunigl and all were Freemasons. Mozart could for the same reason appreciate this motive as he was already near the ideas of The Magic Flute and might have projected Tito into Sarastro. However, this opera was not an immediate success like Don Giovanni four years earlier, particularly not in Vienna. Only in Prague it continued to be played.
It is also noteworthy, that Mozart traveled from his very early childhood all over Europe, but visited Prague for the first time when he was 31. The main reason going to Prague was a commercial one. To begin with, Mozart was in need of new commissions and was so to say “available”. At the same time, Pasquale Bondini, the director of the Nostitz National Theater in Prague was having a huge success with the staging of Figaro. By inviting Mozart to Prague he hoped to commission another “hit” opera with Mozart.
Another strong push in the creation of the legendary love relationship between Mozart and Prague gave Franz Xavier Niemetschek with his first biography on Mozart, published in 1798. Niemetschek was a professor at a gymnasium in Prague and created in this biography a very romantic picture of a music loving Prague audience idolizing Mozart. This romantic infatuation has been repeated by nearly all later authors.
Freemasonry in Prague and Mozart.
As to the Masonic connections of Mozart in Prague, here the prime source is Alfred Meissner, (1822-1885) who published in 1871 his novel Rococo Bilder, where he describes life in Prague at the end of the 18th century. He extensively describes Mozart’s presence in Prague and states that on 10 September 1791 Mozart was visiting the Lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeit, where he was received by the brethren singing the Masonic cantata Die Maurerfreude (K471). Meissner further claims, that Mozart disclosed than, that a bigger Masonic opus is being created, referring to the Magic Flute.
Alfred Meissner lived nearly one hundred years later, but claimed to have these stories from his grandfather – August Gottlieb Meissner, who lived in Prague during Mozart’s last visit and was an active member of the lodge Wahrheid & Einigkeid. However, many details and scenes from Rococo Bilder have never been proven, for example an evening at Bertramka with Casanova and Mozart, or the scene where Pasquale Bondini is bidding Mozart farewell at his last visits in 1791, when Bondini was actually already two years dead. So the conclusion should perhaps be that it’s more a work of fiction.
The alleged lodge visit of Mozart on 10 September was in the middle of the coronation festivities, just one full day before the coronation of Maria Louisa as Queen of Bohemia. It is highly unlikely that a lodge meeting could be held on this evening, when most lodge dignitaries had social responsibilities with the coronation festivities. Moreover, according reports there was a dinner with the Imperial family that evening, attended by 108 people. So this legendary lodge visit of Mozart in Prague should be treated as a legend, not a proven fact.
But, what where than the Masonic contacts of Mozart in Prague?
One of the incentives to travel to Prague did come from Johann Joseph Franz Anton Count Thun-Hohenstein (1711-1788) from Linz, who was a Freemason and member of the lodge, Zu den sieben Weisen in Linz (Austria) and a friend of the family Mozart. On his first trip to Prague, Mozart was accompanied by his wife Constanze and they stayed at the Thun palace (today the British embassy) of the above mentioned Count Thun.
As Mozart was a famous celebrity, many influential people where keen on meeting him or inviting him to their palaces, or institutions. Many of them were Freemasons.
At this time, there were three craft lodges in Prague: Zu den drei gekroenten Sternen und Redlichkeit (At the three crowned stars and sincerity) which was the oldest one, founded in 1741. Of its 126 registered members in 1787, nearly 50 were aristocrats. It was a traditional lodge, comparable to the Viennese lodge Zur gekronten Hoffnung.
The lodge Zur Wahrheid und Einigkeid zu den drei gekronten Saulen (Truth and Unity at the three crowned Columns) had ca 75 members. This lodge was founded in 1783 by brethren actively engaged is spreading the ideas of Enlightenment. Men promoting modern science. This lodge was modeled on the famous Viennese lodge Zur wahre Eintracht led by Ignaz von Born.
There was another, smaller lodge Zu den neun Sternen (At the nine Stars), of which Count Kunigl was the driving force. It was probably active only during Mozart’s last visit to Prague, as a membership list does exist only from this year.
The masons Mozart met in Prague were members from all of the mentioned lodges. Moreover, there were dual memberships (Count Kunigl: member of Zu den drei gekronten Sternen and Neun Sternen), so one can not conclude, that Mozart was taken „care off“ by a particular lodge.
An important, first hand, source of Mozart’s contact with lodges should be lodge minutes.
Lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen is best documented in current archives and minutes of meetings on the following dates exist:
8. 12. 1786
2. 2. 1787 Mozart in Prague
9. 2. 1787
2. 3 1787
2. 4. 1787
5. 8. 1791
7. 10. 1791
Only one lodge meeting took place when Mozart was in Prague: 2 February 1787. However, no mention was made of Mozart, nor in the minutes just before his arrival, nor after he left. It is truly remarkable, that Mozart`s visit, which caused such a lot of publicity and attention in the newspapers of the day, was nowhere mentioned in lodge minutes of his „dedicated“ masonic brethren. Perhaps an explanation can be, that Mozart had no contacts with Friedrich baron von Schmidburg, who was the Worshipful Master of this lodge. Only with Count Pachta, (member of the Lodge Committee) and Count Clam Gallas, who were members of this lodge, but without a senior office in the lodge, with whom Mozart had contact.
Unfortunately, we do not have the minutes of the lodge Zur Wahrheid und Einigked, as these might have perhaps mentioned Mozart, as here the Worshipful Master was Count Canal, who did actively entertain Mozart during his Prague stays, and Deputy Master was Ungar, who showed Mozart the university library. Interestingly, Ungar visited two years earlier, on 11 February 1785 the lodge Zur wahren Eintracht in Vienna where he could have met Mozart, if the Kappelmeister would not be prevented to attend as he had his own subscription concert that evening. August Gottlieb Meissner was also an active member of this lodge in the function of Chaplain. He was the presumed source of information, that Mozart was received on 10 September 1791 in the lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid. This has been claimed by his grandson Alfred Meissner. So far, however, no hard evidence has come forward to substantiate this literary legend.
If one looks on Mozart`s activities in Prague day- by- day, than the most logical time for a lodge visit should have been his fist visit in January-February 1787. Ca 20 days are „unaccounted“ for, (what means that we do not know his activity that day) and could leave time for a lodge visit. Especially, as Mozart was not under pressure to finish an opera or a composition. It was his most relaxed visit. But nor legends, nor hard evidence report a lodge visit at this first trip.
Mozart`s second visit to Prague in October-November 1787 was his longest, 43 days. However, Mozart spend most of this time finishing his opera Don Giovanni. The 22 „unaccounted“ days before the premiere would all be needed to work. There are 14 days after the premiere, which would give him opportunity to relax and perhaps to visit a lodge, but again no single evidence of such occurrence exist.
The fifth and last visit to Prague took place in August-September 1791 and was the shortest-19 days. Also this time an opera had to be finished under great stress. In addition, the Prague society was in the spell of the coronation festivities and spend all energy and money on entertaining the Imperial family. Looking at the festivities calendar shows us, that Mozart would have ca 5 „unaccounted“ days.
Alfred Meissner placed Mozart`s visit to lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid on 10. September 1791. (Some other place it on 11 or 12 September). As this was in the middle of the coronation festivities, this seem highly unlikely.
Another interesting fact is, that the Bohemian Estates Committee, which signed the coronation opera contract with impresario Guardasoni did not specify who should be the composer. From the five committee member there were three Freemasons (counts Kunigl, Sweerts and Unwerth, al members of the lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen). If Mozart had huge success with his operas in Prague, and was the darling of the Prague public and was also know to be able to compose very quickly, why did not his „masonic friends“, instruct Guardasoni to contract Mozart? Guardasoni took a business approach: he first contacted Saliery, as he was the court composer and the opera was for a court occasion. After failing to get Saliery, Guardasoni turned to Mozart, knowing, he is the only one left to be able to compose a coronation opera in a very short time.
Another interesting source of information about Mozarts masonic contact in Prague could be the Annalen der Loge Wahrheid und Einigkeid zu den drey gekronten Saulen im Orient von Prag. This is the history of this lodge from its consecration in 1783 up to 1790 and has been included in the publication System der Freymaurerloge Wahrheid und Einigkeid zu drey gekronten Saulen in Prag, 1794. The author of the history (Annalen) was Charles O`Reilly (1763-1802), a well know medical doctor in Prague, of Irish descent, and member of this lodge. His lodge history unfortunately ends in 1790, so the year 1791 is not covered. However, the year 1787 is covered, when Mozart made his first two visit to Prague and premiered Don Giovanni. Interestingly, no single mention or reference to Mozart’s is to be found. This is the lodge of which Count Canal was Master and it was he, who introduced and guided Mozart into the Prague society at his first visit.
Mozart’s Masonic contacts in Prague.
From Mozart’s own letters and other sources we know, that Mozart met the following persons:
Joseph Emanuel Count Canal-Malabaila, (1745-1826) founder of the first botanical garden of Prague called after him Kanalka, showed Mozart around. Canal was Worshipful Master of lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid in the period 1787-1791. Also honorary member of the lodge Zu den wahren vereinigten Freunden in Brno, member of Rodomskoy Prefecture and Illuminate.
Mozart spends an evening at a ball in Konvikt, hosted by Franz Joseph Anton baron Bretfeld von Kronenburg. Some sources claim he was a mason, but his name does not appear on the membership lists of the Prague or Viennese lodges.
Karel Rafael Ungar, (1744-1807), professor and director of the university library, showed Mozart around academic premises. He was a very active Freemason and in the years 1787-1791 deputy master of the lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid.
In February 1787 Mozart made a composition for Johann Joseph Philipp Count Pachta Reyhofen, (1756-1834) who was member of the lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen in 1787, but was not listed as a member in 1791.
Also Christian Philipp Count Clam Gallas (1748-1805), hosted Mozart in his palace in Husova 20. He was member of the lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen.
An artistic contact represented Johann Baptist Kucharz (1751-1829), who was a cemballo player in the orchestra of Count Nostitz. Moreover, he played also the organ and was a composer. He is listed as a member of the lodge Zu den neun Sternen in 1791.
Carl Prince Lichnowsky (1761-1814), Viennese courtier, amateur musician, travel companion of Mozart on his third Prague journey. First supported Mozart financially, later sued him for a debt of 1435 florins. Member of the Viennese lodge Zur Wahrheid. Also Illuminate.
Mozart met during his stays in Prague certainly many more interesting persons, but none of these encounters have been explicitly recorded or documented. It would have been not unlikely, that Mozart met the following Masonic Brethren, due to their profession or position:
Carl Friedrich Wahr (1745-1811), member of the lodges Zu den drei gekronten Sternen and Zu den neun Sternen. First director of the National Nostitz theater.
August Gottlieb Meissner (1753-1807), writer, professor of esthetics at the Prague university, publisher. Was member of the lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid in 1787-1791.
Johann Ferdinad Nepomuk Edler Schoenveld (1750-1821) Prague publisher. His newspaper K.K. Prager Oberpostamtszeitung reported actively on Mozarts stay in Prague. Also published libreto`s of Don Giovanni and La Clemenza di Tito. Nearly all lodge membership lists and other masonic publications of the day were printed by Schoenveld. Member of the lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen in the years 1785-1792.
Prokop Count Lažanský baron of Bukowa (1741-1804). Supreme Judge in Bohemia, Chairman of the Royal Bohemian Scientific Society. By Imperial command initiated and passed in 1783 in the lodge Wahren Eintracht in Vienna and immediately afterwards affiliated and raised in Prague in the lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid.
Caspar Hermann Count Kunigl (1745-1814). County Governor, member court of appeal. Member of lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen 1782-1791 and of lodge Zu den neun Sternen in 1790-91 and of Wahrheid und Einigkeid 1790. In 1791 on behalf of the Bohemian Estates signatory of the contract with impresario Guardasoni for the opera La clemenza die Tito.
Joseph Franz de Paula Count Sweerts-Sporck (1756-1823). Imperial Chamberlain. Member of lodges Zu den drei gekronten Saulen (1777-1783) ; Zu den drei gekronten Sternen (1783-1790); Wahrheid und Einigkeid (1791). In 1791 on behalf of the Bohemian Estates signatory of the contract with impresario Guardasoni for the opera La clemenza die Tito.
Johann Count Unwerth (1753-?). Imperial Chamberlain. Member of the lodge Zu den drei gekronten Strenen in the years 1774-1791.In 1791 on behalf of the Bohemian Estates signatory of the contract with impresario Guardasoni for the opera La clemenza die Tito.
Franz de Paula Anton Count Hartig (1758-1797). Imperial chamberlain, ambassador in Dresden, politician, scientist. Chairman of the Royal Bohemian Scientific Society . Member of the lodges Zu den drei gekronten Sternen (1782-5) and Wahrheid und Einigkeid in the years (1787-1790).
Ignaz Cornova (1740-1822). Professor of history at the Prague university, Ex-Jesuit. Member and director of the Royal Bohemian Scientific Society. Member of the lodges Zu den drei gekronten Saulen 1774-1783. In the years 1783-1791 member of Wahrheid und Einigkeid.
How to evaluate Mozart`s Prague visits?
Mozart visited Prague in a period of late Enlightenment. Even thou it was the capital of the Bohemian Kingdom and the third largest city in Central Europe, the absence of a Royal & Imperial Court made it somewhat provincial. On the other hand the „ruling“ aristocratic and civic families were leading an active cultural life, supporting particularly music and opera. The Prague public were more free to express what they like or dislike, not feeling obliged to follow the taste of the Imperial court as the Viennese public did. There was a growing sense of Bohemian patriotism, which also found its expression in the activities of the Royal Bohemian Scientific Society, the Art Society, publishing houses and charitable institutions. The Masonic lodges were an important contributor to these developments.
Mozart met and was shown around town by a number of these Enlightenment personalities. Many were Freemasons, but it seems more likely that the encounters were based on the functions and social positions of his hosts and less on their lodge membership. Meetings with several masons have been documented by Mozart`s own letters and reports of other witnesses. Unfortunately, so far, no hard evidence was found for one or more visits to a Prague lodge. Such a visit cannot be completely excluded, but based on today`s knowledge of lodge minutes and lodge histories, highly unlikely.
However, what is absolutely certain is, that Mozart`s music was in Prague an immediate and great success. Not only during his lifetime, but also after his death. Only nine days after his passing away, a grand musical remembrance service was held in the St Nicolas Church at Mala Strana attended by more that 3000 mourning Prague citizens. His operas and concerts never left the Prague stages. Already in 1837 a Mozart Memorial Collection was established at the University library, adorned by the first bust of Mozart, made by Emanuel Max. Quite interestingly, Prague became also the place were the eldest son of Mozart-Carl Thomas (1784-1858) was send by Constance after her husband died. Franz Xaver Niemetschek, the first biographer of Mozart, became the foster-parent to Carl Thomas in the years 1792-1797. The younger son, Franz Xaver (1791-1844) did also spend half a year with Niemetschek in Prague, and regularly returned in adult life to the city at the Moldau. He was buried in the Bohemian spa Carlsbad.
The Prague Mozart cult will be there forever, thanks only to the opera Don Giovanni, which was composed for Prague and which is one of the top ten operas of all times.
The Prague masonic link to Mozart is not so clear. Contact with Prague masons are proven and documented, however, a lodge visit is not. Still, there is room for further research to find a possible proof.
Mozart in Prague day-by-day.
Only known activities are shown per date. All other dates are „empty“ or „unaccounted for“.
First journey, spending 29 days in Prague
Monday 8 January 1787
Day before departing to Prague, Mozart writes in the guest book of Edmund von Webern in Vienna:
Seyen sie fleissig-und fliehen sie nie ihren sie von Herzen liebenden Vetter
Wolfgang Amade Mozart Δ :.
Wien den 8:t Jenner 1787,Morgens um 5 uhr, vor der Abreise
Mozart put behind his name a triangle and three points. This might be a rare written expression by himself of his masonic membership.
Tuesday 9 January 1787
Traveling to Prague
Wednesday 10 January 1787
Traveling to Prague
Thursday 11 January 1787
12:00 Mozart arrives midday in Prague accompanied by his wife Constanze, violinist Franz de Paula Hofer (1755-1796), Elisabeth Barbara Qualenberg, violinist Maria Anna Antonia Crux, clarinetist and Freemason Anton Stadler, violinist Kaspar Ramlo, Franz Jakob Freystadler, and the servant Joseph.
Stay at the Palace Thun, today British Embassy.
His host is Johann Joseph Count Thun (1711-1788); Freemason
In the evening attends a ball of Baron Franz Joseph Anton Bretfeld von Kronenburg (1728-1809) in Konvikt in Stare Mesto.
His guide for the evening was Joseph Emanuel Count Canal de Malabaila (1745-1826); Freemason
Friday 12 January 1787
Small private performance given in the palace of Count Johann Thun
The “Bandel” trio K. 441 was performed
Saturday 13 January 1787
11 a.m. visit to the Royal court library and the seminary. His host and guide is Karl Raphael Ungar (1743 – 1807), professor and director of the university library Clementinum and Freemason.
Midday dinner with Count Canal
Evening visit to a performance in Nostitz National Theater of Paisiello’s opera “Le Gare Generose”
Sunday 14 January 1787
Monday 15 January 1787
Tuesday 16 January 1787
Wednesday 17 January 1787
Performance of “Figaro” in Mozart’s presence
Thursday 18 January 1787
Friday 19 January 1787
Concert by Mozart in the Nostitz National Theater; first performance of the Symphony in D K. 504 (Prague Symphony)
Saturday 20 January 1787
Sunday 21 January 1787
Monday 22 January 1787
Mozart conducts a performance of “Figaro”
Tuesday 23 January 1787
Wednesday 24 January 1787
Thursday 25 January 1787
Friday 26 January 1787
Saturday 27 January 1787
Sunday 28 January 1787
Monday 29 January 1787
Tuesday 30 January 1787
Wednesday 31 January 1787
Thursday 1 February 1787
Friday 2 February 1787
Conference meeting of the Lodge Zu den drei gekronten Sternen und Radlichkeit
(No reference made to Mozart)
Saturday 3 February 1787
Sunday 4 February 1787
Monday 5 February 1787
Tuesday 6 February 1787
Composition of the 6 “German Dances” K. 509
Allegedly commissioned by Johann Philip Joseph Count Pachta (1756-1834); Freemason
Wednesday 7 February 1787
Thursday 8 February 1787
Mozart leaves Prague
Thursday 4 October 1787
Arrival in Prague.Constance joined her husband also on the second journey to Prague. He lived in the house At the three lions cubs on Uhelny trh, not to be far from the Nostitz National Theatre, where he had to rehearse his new opera Don Giovanni.
Friday 5 October 1787
Saturday 6 October 1787
Sunday 7 October 1787
Monday 8 October 1787
Tuesday 9 October 1787
Wednesday 10 October 1787
Thursday 11 October 1787
Friday 12 October 1787
Saturday 13 October 1787
Sunday 14 October 1787
Mozart conducts a performance of “Figaro”
Monday 15 October 1787
Tuesday 16 October 1787
Wednesday 17 October 1787
Thursday 18 October 1787
Friday 19 October 1787
Saturday 20 October 1787
Sunday 21 October 1787
Monday 22 October 1787
Tuesday 23 October 1787
Wednesday 24 October 1787
Thursday 25 October 1787
Friday 26 October 1787
Saturday 27 October 1787
Sunday 28 October 1787
Completion of “Don Giovanni” K. 527
The entry in his own hand-written catalogue of works reads:
the 28th of October. in Prague.
Il dissoluto punito, o, il Don Giovanni. Opera Buffa in 2 Acts, Musical numbers: 24, Actors: Signore Teresa Saporiti, Bondini and Micelli; Signori Passi, Ponziani, Baglioni and Lolli.
Monday 29 October 1787
Premiere of the opera “Don Giovanni” in the Nostitz National Theater in Prague
Tuesday 30 October 1787
Wednesday 31 October 1787
Thursday 1 November 1787
Friday 2 November 1787
Saturday 3 November 1787
Prague, Bertramka: Composition of the aria “Bella mia fiamma, addio … Resta, oh cara” for soprano, K. 528
The entry in his own hand-written catalogue of works reads:
the 3rd of November
Scena for Madam Duschek. Recitativo “bella mia fiamma”, Aria” Resta O Cara” etc. Accompanimen
Sunday 4 November 1787
Monday 5 November 1787
Tuesday 6 November 1787
Composition of the songs “Des kleinen Friedrichs Geburtstag” K. 529 and “Das Traumbild” K. 530
The entry in his own hand-written catalogue of works reads:
A Song. Am Geburtstag des Fritzes (Little Frederick’s Birthday”).
And ditto A Song, das Traumlied (“The Dream Scene”).
Wednesday 7 November 1787
Thursday 8 November 1787
Friday 9 November 1787
Saturday 10 November 1787
Sunday 11 November 1787
Monday 12 November 1787
Tuesday 13 November 1787
Wednesday 14 November 1787
Thursday 15 November 1787
Departs from Prague for Vienna
Friday 10 April 1789
1:30 p.m. arrival in Prague on journey to Berlin (Mozart and Karl Prince Lichnowsky; Freemason (1758 – 1814). Meets Domenico Guardasoni. Leaves in the evening, 21h for Dresden
Sunday 31 May 1789
Arrival in Prague
Tuesday 2 or Wednesday 3 June 1789
Departure from Prague
Sunday 28 August 1791
Arrival in Prague of Mozart, Constanze and Franz Xaver Süßmayr (1766 – 1803)
Monday 29 August 1791
Tuesday 30 August 1791
Wednesday 31 August 1791
Thursday 1 September 1791
Friday 2 September 1791
Festival performance of “Don Giovanni” in the Nostitz National Theater, attended by the Imperial family, on whose request the opera was performed. According Franz Alexander Kleist, Mozart was also present in the audience.
Saturday 3 September 1791
The Seconda Theater Company gives in the evening „Die Sonnen Jungfrau“ (The Sun-Virgin), a German play in five acts, in the Nostitz National Theater.
Sunday 4 September 1791
Oath of Allegiance by the Bohemian Estates to King Leopold II in the Vladislav Hall at Prague castle.
Monday 5 September 1791
Completion of the opera seria “La clemenza di Tito” K. 621
The entry in his own hand-written catalogue of works reads:
the 5th of September, performance in Prague the 6th of September
La Clemenzia di Tito. opera seria in 2 acts for the coronation of his royal highness Leopold II. Author Signore Mazzolá, Saxon court poet. Actors Sig. Marchetti Fantozi. Sig. Antonini, Sig. Bedini, Sig. Carolina Perini, Actors Signore Baglioni, Campi and chorus; 24 Numbers.
Tuesday 6 September 1791
Coronation of Leopold II as King of Bohemia in St Vitus Cathedral
Premiere of the opera seria “La clemenza di Tito” in Prague for the coronation celebration.
Wednesday 7 September 1791
Thursday 8 September 1791
Archduchess Maria Anna installed as Abbess of the Royal Convent for Gentlewomen. Mozart`s mass (K258?) performed.
Friday 9 September 1791
The Seconda Company played in the Nostitz National Theater the play Der Herbsttag and Der weibliche Jakobiener Chlubb.
Saturday 10 September 1791
Dinner at the Imperial court for 108 persons.
???„Visit to the lodge Wahrheid und Einigkeid. Brethren perform for him Laut verkundet unsere freude. Mozart is honoured and indicates a much grander masonic work will come soon, having the Magic flute in Mind“.
This statement is from August Meissner who wrote this in 1871 in his book Rokoko Bildern, claiming his grand father August Gotlieb Meissner told him this, as he was present at that occasion. (Alfred Meissner: Rococo Bilder. Nach den Aufzeichnungen meines grossvaters. Gumbinnen 1871). Is most probably a fabulation.
Second performance of „La clemeza di Tito’ (?)
Sunday 11 September 1791
Mozart`s mass given in the St Vitus Cathedral
Jean Pierre Blanchard (Freemason) demonstrates in Bubenec an ascent and flight with an hot-air balloon, watched by the Imperial family and 13.000 spectators.
Monday 12 September 1791
Coronation of Maria Louisa as Queen of Bohemia in the St Vitus Cathedral
Evening: Grand Galla Ball given by the Bohemia Estates in the Nostiz National Theater which is specialy adjusted for this occasion. Over 300 musicians entertain 6000 guests. Many Mozart`s compositions are played that evening.
Mozart`s departure from Prague ?
Tuesday 13 September 1791
Wednesday 14 September 1791
Leopold II visists the First Bohemian Crafts & Industry exhibition at the Clementinum.
Thursday 15 September 1791
Mozart`s arrival in Vienna
Friday 16 September 1791
25 September 1791
Leopold II visits the Royal Bohemian Scientific Society at the Carolinum.
2. October 1791
Leopold II leaves Prague.
Liste der gerechten und vollkommenen Loge Wahrheid und Einigkeit zu den drey gekronten Saulen im Orient von Prag, 5787 (1787); 5790 (1790)
Verzeichnis der Mitglieder von der volkommenen und gerechten Loge Zu den drey gekronten Sternen und Redlichkeit im Morgen von Prag, Am Johannisfeste 5787 (1787), 5791 (1791)
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NIEMETSCHEK, Franz Xaver, Ich kante Mozart, die einzige Biografie von einemAugenzeuge. Herausgegeben und Kommentiert von Jost Perfal, Lange Muller, Munchen, 2005
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MEISSNER, Alfred, Mozart v Praze, Adolf Synek, Praha 1930
KOVAL, Karel, Mozart v Praze, Svobodné Slovo-Melantrich, Praha, 1956
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ROBBINS-LANDON, H.H., Mozart and the Masons, New Light on the Lodge „Crowned Hope“, Thames & Hudson, London, 1982
ROBBINS-LANDON, H.C. 1791 Mozart`s Last Year, Thames and Hudson, 1988
ROBBIN-LANDON, H. C, Mozart, the golden years 1781-1791, Thames & Hudson, London, 1989
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SCHULER, Heinz, Mozart und die Freimaurerei, Florian Noetzel Verlag, Wilhelmshaven, 1992
WAGNER, Guy, Bruder Mozart, Freimaurerei im Wien des 18. Jahrhunderts, Amalthea, Wien 1996
SALFELLNER, Harald, Mozart und Prag, Vitalis, Prag, 2000
PETRÁN, Josef, Kalendář, Lidové Noviny, Praha, 2004
PODŠKUBKA, Jan, České svobodné zednářství v průběhu 18.stol, Národní knihovna, Praha, 2004
SVATOŠOVA,Hana a kolektiv, Praha Mozartova, kulturní a společenský život v Praze 1780-1800, Archív hlavního města Prahy, 2006
NIUBO, Marc, The people of Prague pay homage to me, National Library, Prague, 2006
KODEK, Gunter K, Die Mitglieder der Wiener Freimaurer-Logen 1742-1848, Locker, Wien, 2011
Website: Mozartedum Salzburg, Mozart Tag fur Tag